Gene ‘Arc’ transports mRNA across cells and is required for some forms of plasticity

Also it appears to have evolved from viruses.

Elissa D. Pastuzyn, Cameron E. Day, Rachel B. Kearns, Madeleine Kyrke-Smith, Andrew V. Taibi, John McCormick, Nathan Yoder, David M. Belnap, Simon Erlendsson, Dustin R. Morado, John A.G. Briggs, C├ędric Feschotte, Jason D. Shepherd. The Neuronal Gene Arc Encodes a Repurposed Retrotransposon Gag Protein that Mediates Intercellular RNA Transfer

James Ashley, Benjamin Cordy, Diandra Luci, Lee G. Fradkin, Vivian Budnik, Travis Thomson. Retrovirus-like Gag Protein Arc1 Binds RNA and Traffics across Synaptic Boutons

 

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Genetic tagging of the particular neurons in the basolateral amygdala that store a particular engram

When we learn new information we use only a tiny fraction of the neurons in our brain for that particular memory trace. In order to allow the molecular study of those specific neurons we combined elements of the tet system with a promoter that is activated by high level neural activity (the cfos promoter) to generate mice in which a genetic tag can be introduced into neurons that are active at a given point in time. The tag can be maintained for a prolonged period, creating a precise record of the neural activity pattern at a specific point in time. Using fear conditioning we found that the same neurons activated during learning were reactivated when the animal recalled the fearful event. We also found that these neurons were no longer activated following memory extinction, consistent with the idea that extinction modifies a component of the original memory trace.

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